Invasive plant species are permitted to be disposed of in this manner in Michigan, unlike other landscape waste. Try to harvest in early to late spring, and avoid harvesting in hot summer months when the plant … It has spread as far west as Kansas, taking over native habitat. In Europe, garlic mustard is kept under control by many native biological enemies. Your planting area needs to be free and clear of any standing Garlic Mustard. During the 1st year it consists of a small rosette of leaves, while during the 2nd year it becomes a little-branched plant about 1-3' tall. It is a biennial, a plant with a two-year life cycle, growing its first year as a seedling and rosette stage plant and flowering the subsequent year. When under heavy attack by one or more of the weevil species, garlic mustard plants become shorter, less robust, have tip dieback and produce fewer flowers and seed pods. Garlic mustard is not native to North America, but it sure feels at home there. Height: Second year garlic mustard grows up to 1 m in height. One weevil, C. scrobicollis, is currently being evaluated in the University of Minnesota's quarantine facilities. The size of mature garlic mustard populations on a site can vary from year to year depending on when seeds germinate. Garlic mustard is native to Europe, Western Asia and Northern Africa where it is found in hedgerows and along the roadsides and forest edges. But before you start, a bit of preparation will be necessary. Stem: Second year garlic mustard plants have hairy stems. In North America, European insects and diseases that control the plant’s population are not present. In it native areas, it is kept in check by 76 different kinds of insects including butterflies and moths which lay their eggs on it. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Science, Research and Technology, NJ Non-Native Plants, "Garlic Mustard Fact Sheet" October 2008: NJ Department of Agriculture Biological Control of Plant Pests. For larger stands, mowing is not advised, and many other mechanical methods may be more labor intensive than hand pulling (e.g., clipping and bagging or root slicing). 2008. Garlic Mustard is a biennial herb that has been labeled an invasive weed in many areas. Cover chopped garlic mustard roots with 1 cup water and bring slowly to simmer but do not boil. 88 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8525 Unlike most other species, though, garlic mustard moves from disturbed areas into healthy forest. It is found in forested areas. Garlic mustard is difficult to control once it has reached a site. Dense stands of garlic mustard can divert light, growing space, water and nutrients from herbaceous native plants and woody seedlings that grow in similar conditions. Most of the damage is done by larvae inside the plant so observation is not usually possible. 2010 Annual Report on Garlic Mustard, Alliaria petiolata, an Alien Invader of NJ's Deciduous Forests. The aroma usually fades as the foliage ages. Rowe, P. and J.M. Research shows that garlic mustard is allelopathic, meaning that it releases chemicals which can inhibit the growth of other plant species. Alliaria petiolata - aka "garlic mustard" wild, edible plant - Identify, harvest, prepare, poisonous look a-likes, and medicinal uses. Most seeds lose viability after the first year but some can remain dormant for 4-6 years or longer. It Invades high-quality upland and floodplain forests and savannas, as well as disturbed areas, such as yards and roadsides. For garlic mustard, however, the conclusion is unanimous: It is a highly invasive plant that should be controlled by all means. These include toothworts (Cardamine or Dentaria), wild anise (Osmorhiza longistylis), sweet cicely (Ozmorhiza claytonii) and early saxifrage (Saxifraga virginiensis). It matures rapidly in the second year, produces flower stalks, sets seed, and then dies. It has long been used as food and medicinally as a diuretic. Garlic mustard has become Portland’s poster child for plants that overwhelm the landscape by seeding: a single plant can make hundreds of small seeds. When using a weed line trimmer, care should be taken not to cut native plants growing near garlic mustard and to keep soil disturbance to a minimum. The plant was introduced here in the 1860's for food and medicine. In the first year, the plant forms a low cluster of leaves and spends the winter in that form. Pull out all the roots or at least the top half where a new plant could re-sprout on live root buds. Garlic mustard is a shade tolerant, invasive species with the capability to establish in our state. All rights reserved. But you don’t really need to know this to forage for it, and it’s easier to find 2nd year plants. Issued in furtherance of MSU Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. It can grow in dense shade or sunny sites. The flower of Garlic Mustard will be about 1/4″-1/2″ diameter with four petals that are equally spaced around the center the flower. Garlic mustard is actually a biennial plant, and in its first year appears as a rosette of the roundish, scalloped leaves that grow at the base of 2nd year plants. To contact an expert in your area, visit https://extension.msu.edu/experts, or call 888-MSUE4MI (888-678-3464). Garlic Mustard Alliaria petiolata Mustard family (Brassicaceae) Description: This plant is a biennial. Copyright © 2020 Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. If temperatures are above freezing, this basal rosette may continue to grow leaves. Garlic mustard is a non-native species originating from Europe and parts of Asia. (Garlic Mustard Monitoring Protocol; invasiveplants.net/monitor/gm_monitor.aspx). School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, Office of Continuing Professional Education, invasivespeciesinfo.gov/plants/garlicmustard.shtml, wiki.bugwood.org/Archive:BCIPEUS/Alliaria_petiolata, nj.gov/agriculture/divisions/pi/pdf/garlicmustard.pdf, nj.gov/agriculture/divisions/pi/prog/biological.html#9, plants.usda.gov/java/nameSearch?keywordquery=Alliaria+petiolata&mode=sciname&submit.x=4&submit.y=13, Report Accessibility Barrier or Provide Feedback Form, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Executive Dean of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Irene O. Sabin, Master Gardener, RCE of Hunterdon County, Nicholas Polanin, Agriculture and Natural Resources Agent, Somerset County, Basal rosettes stay green in fall and winter; spring growth starts very early, Crushed rosettes and new foliage have an odor of garlic, The white tap root has an S-shaped curve at the top as opposed to the roots of violets which grow straight down. Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) is a European woodland plant introduced to North America by early settlers for its culinary and alleged medicinal qualities. 2010. One mother plant can produce thousands of seeds that may remain viable for up to 10 years and while it is growing, the roots of the plant produce chemicals in the soil that help it out compete native plants. Although edible for people, it is not eaten by local wildlife or insects. Some researchers believe that these compounds can also hinder beneficial soil fungi (mycorrhizal fungi) which help tree roots take up water and nutrients. Because it is self-fertile, a single plant can populate or repopulate an entire site. Cooperating Agencies: Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and County Boards of Chosen Freeholders. 168pp. Marie, in parts of Quebec, and south to North Carolina and Kentucky in the United States. Isolated populations have been found in British Columbia, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick. The species name, petiolata, means that leaves are attached to the stalk by a simple leaf stem (petiole). Wild Ginger is easy to grow. Internet, 2009. Marie, in parts of Quebec, and south to North Carolina and Kentucky in the United States. Removing garlic mustard by hand is not difficult if done when the soil is moist. Preferred places are fallow land, garden margins, deciduous forests, hedgerows and sites with nitrogen-rich soils. 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