Two more phreatic eruptions the next morning (at 0835 and 1045) were smaller than the first; the early morning cloud rose 8-10 m, and no sounds were heard during the second of the 4 July eruptions. Mapping along this transect revealed a thick sequence of phreatic, phreatomagmatic, and lahar deposits, as well as three distinct lava flows. An accompanying detonation was heard at the sulfur mining site 2 km from the summit and volcanic tremor was recorded with an amplitude of 0.5-1 mm. Wenn du eine Tour im Voraus (z.B. Table 1. Ijen Caldera encloses a group of small stratovolcanoes. The geophysical survey indicated that both gravity (figure 11) and self-potential (BGVN 32:09) show compatible variations during 2006-2008. That and many other web sites show photos of the mining process. The Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 July a pilot observed an ash plume drifting W from Ijen at an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. So machten wir aus der Not eine Tugend und besichtigten den Schwefelabbau im Krater des Kawah Ijen. Fumaroles on top of the dome had substantially higher temperatures, ranging up to 600°C, with the hottest emitting orange flames. 97, Issues 1-4, April 2000, pp. Rymer, H., Locke, C.A., Brenes, J., and Williams-Jones, G., 2005, Magma plumbing processes for persistent activity at Poás Volcano, Costa Rica: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 32, p.. L08307, doi:10.1029/2004GL022284. Measured temperatures of the crater lake waters were mostly stable during October (ranging from 30.6-31.2°C), but showed significant variation and increased maximum temperatures during November and December 2011 (figure 12b). Fumarole mound. Von dort oben hatten wir eine einmalige Sicht auf den Kawah Ijen – den Kratersee und den Schwefeldampf. Today, most of the world’s sulfur is produced as a byproduct of oil refining and natural gas processing. PVMBG reported that on 29 May a gas explosion at Ijen generated a plume that rose 250-500 m above the surface of the lake. Ich habs bereits geändert im Text. Selten bietet sich die Möglichkeit dieses gigantische Naturwunder zu bestaunen. Two phreatic eruptions occurred on 1 August starting at 1635; the sound could be heard at the sulfur weighing station. 253–263. During the period of 18 May through the week ending on 21 June a "white ash plume" rose 50-100 m. Recorded tremor had an amplitude of 0.5-3 mm. Könntest du mir die Kontaktdaten allenfalls weiterleiten? As discussed in earlier reports, Ijen is the name often applied to the larger complex consisting of a large caldera and associated cones. Lake and Banyu Pahit river. The following report, summarized from . Der Dampf ist sehr unangenehm in den Augen und verursacht Hustenreiz. The first eruption recorded by western observers goes back to 1796, and the most recent was in 2018. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents and visitors were advised to not approach the crater rim or descend to the crater floor. The sulfur mining company had installed new pipes and constructed supporting walls. Bevor wir wieder nach unten gingen, wollten wir noch einmal den Krater von oben sehen und sind bis an den Gipfel des Ijen gelaufen. Am bekanntesten in diesem riesigen Komplex, dessen Basisdurchmesser 75 km beträgt, ist der von kahlen Wänden eingeschlossene Kratersee Kawah Ijen, der von manchen Geologen und Mineralogen als das größte Säurefass der Erde bezeichnet wird. Figure 18 shows the general situation as put forth in a simple sketch by Alain Bernard (van Bergen and others, 2000). On 13 May 2012, CVGHM again lowered the Alert Level to 2. The largest concentration of post-caldera cones forms an E-W-trending zone across the southern side of the caldera. During 1-30 April 2012 white plumes from Kawah Ijen rose 100-200 m above the crater, and during 1-11 May diffuse white plumes rose 50-100 m above the crater. Ijen [12]. Kawah Ijen is the name of the intracaldera cone that contains a crater with an acid briny lake 700 x 800 m in diameter. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2. Welchen Guide habt ihr kontaktiert und wie viel habt ihr für die gesamte Tour bezahlt? – Beste Reisezeit Indonesien Thermal alerts courtesy of the HIGP MODIS Thermal Alerts Team (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/). Würde auch gerne etwas zu den nötigen Vorbereitungen und dem Guide erfahren . Kawah Ijen is a composite volcano located at the easternmost part of Java island in Indonesia and hosts the largest natural acidic lake in the world. As with the gravity variation, similar changes were observed on the electrical profile around the active crater. CVGHM reported that during 1 October-30 November white plumes from Ijen rose 50-150 m above the crater and lake water temperatures ranged from 26 to 31.6 degrees Celsius. 31-53. The Alert Level remained at 2 during the report period. Die meisten Guides waren zuvor Ijen-Schwefelarbeiter, die von Osing Vacation abgeworben wurden, um ein besseres Leben zu haben. About 5,000 people live within 10 km of the lake but farther away, many thousands more would be at risk in the event of large lahars. Blaues Feuer, Schwefelabbau und giftiger Schwefeldampf. The higher concentrations were a result of the plume being less dispersed. On windy, clouded days, fumes were much denser and yellow in color, covering all surfaces in a veneer of sulfur. 2020: January The number of volcanic earthquakes increased until 1 July when a gradual decrease began. Measurements in millimeters (mm) indicate amplitudes. Kawah Ijen phreatic eruption and seismic network. In der Ferne sieht man außerdem eine rote Lavawolke, vom Nachbarvulkan Raung. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); J.M. A rumbling noise indicative of another phreatic eruption was heard at 0215 on 7 July at the sulfur weighing station, ~750 m from the crater. Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM). Ijen remained at Alert Level 2. East Indian Volc Surv Bull, 95-98: 1-110. Additional details about July-August 1993 phreatic activity. Trust us, we have seen a few in the region (50+ as we speak) but this one really is unique and ranks very high on our favorite destinations list.. The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. The East Java volcano is the scene of sulfur mining and a highly acidic lake. Diese Schwefelarbeiter steigen täglich bis zu zwei Mal in den Krater, um dort Schwefel abzubauen und nach unten zu transportieren. Genauso beeindruckend ist der intensive Schwefelabbau vor Ort und der Krater selber. On 18 December, after observing further increases in both seismicity and degassing, CVGHM established Alert Level 3. The temperature of the light-green crater lake was 39-42°C. Pro Person 750.000 Rupiah. Summit Elev. But the catch is, it’s only visible at night! The measured pH of the crater lake waters also showed an increase during October-November, rising from 0.7±0.1 in October to 0.83±0.04 in November. The second and third subsections below present maps and background relating to the Ijen complex. Das Puri Amalia Guesthouse in Banyuwangi ist zwar sehr einfach, aber dafür arbeiten hier super liebe Menschen, es gibt ein leckeres Frühstück und das Team hilft dir bei deiner Besteigung auf den Ijen (auf booking.com ansehen), Der Eigentümer des Osing Vacation Homestay in Banyuwangi ist ein super Typ, der dir einen sehr günstigen Ijen-Guide organisieren kann. Between 22 August and 9 September deep volcanic earthquakes were recorded at a rate of 1-2/day; shallow events varied from 2 to 17/day. The escaping fumes were generally white in color, and miners were forced to pour water on the pipes to induce sulfur condensation. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. During 1 October-15 December 2011, the color of the crater lake water remained whitish light green, and bubbling water was observed in the center of the lake. News report cites increased activity beginning on 17 June 2004, The Chief of the local National Park has been quoted as having reported an increase in activity beginning on 17 June 2004. Falls du noch nicht dagewesen bist – Scooter leihen für 5€ und selbst hinfahren mit Google maps. Im Vorfeld hatten wir bereits mit unserem Guide, den Freunde uns empfohlen haben, den Treffpunkt und die Uhrzeit vereinbart. A coincidence of low wages and a small local demand for native sulfur supports artisanal mining at Du kannst entscheiden, auf wie viele Tassen Kaffee du uns einladen möchtest, dafür einfach den Balken nach rechts oder links verschieben! CVGHM lowered the Alert Level for Ijen from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 8 February based on decreased seismicity and visual observations of white plumes rising as high as 300 m above the crater. The studies were small (30 miners) and for comparison (control groups) used similar numbers of residents who lived around the mine but did not work as miners. The survey was complemented by ground temperature measurements, which found the only thermal anomaly was located in the immediate vicinity of the dome. Conductivity in the middle of the lake was 146 mS/cm. Seismicity then gradually declined through mid-July, after which the weekly number of B-type events remained stable at an average of 9/week. Wir haben in Banyuwangi im „Osing Vacation Homestay“ übernachtet. The pH of the water in the lake's edges was measured to be 0.5 and in the middle of the lake 0.13 due to a high concentration of sulfuric acid. Hinzu kommt, dass die Arbeiter den Schwefel teilweise ohne Maske in dem giftigen Schwefeldampf abbauen. Most of the eruptions were phreatic. Information Contacts: W. Tjetjep, VSI; BOM Darwin, Australia; S. Matthews, Univ of Bristol; UPI; ANS. Seismicity remained increased, yet more-or-less constant, through 15 December (figure 12a). Nine volcanic A-type, four volcanic B-type, 25 distant tectonic, and four local tectonic earthquakes were recorded. Kawah Ijen volcano, East Java - blue sulfur flames (16 Images) Ijen volcano: crater lake & sulphur mining (32 Images) More on VolcanoDiscovery. Kawah Ijen is the centre for the youngest activity on this volcano with explosive eruptions from the crater being recorded up until 1936 (Van Padang, 1951). White-medium plume reached 50 m above the summit. Nearly 70 thousand metric tons of sulfur are produced by these methods. Wir wurden belohnt mit einem wunderschönen Sternenhimmel und einer sehr deutlich sichtbaren Milchstraße. The team conducted a transect along the Banyu Pahit river from the dam on the western end of the lake, to where it meets the Paltuding-Pelalangan road. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/). Seismicity at Ijen increased starting in early April, when volcanic B-type events rose from 15 during the week ending on 5 April to 41 events during 6-12 April. 2002: February Huhu Adda, danke für den Homestay Tipp, den haben wir oben mit aufgenommen =), Hallo Der Kratersee – Kawah Ijen und der giftige Schwefeldampf. White gas emissions rose 50-150 m from the crater, and a earthquake was felt on 4 November of Modified Mercali intensity III. During their visit, this team documented degassing and increasing fumarole temperatures. Der Raung dagegen ist nur 20 km entfernt, er ist wirklich der nächste aktive Nachbarvulkan. The Alert Level was then raised from 2-3 on 18 December following further increases in activity. 2001: February During the week of 14-20 October, 1 deep-volcanic (A-type) earthquake was registered. Es ist unbedingt empfehlenswert, sich im Vorfeld über einen Guide zu informieren und alles zu vereinbaren. Seismicity was dominated by shallow volcanic (B-type) and tectonic earthquakes (table 5). The scientists also applied the self-potential (SP) method, also know as spontaneous potential, that measures electrical potentials developed in the Earth by electrochemical action between minerals and solutions with which they are in contact. As in 2006 (BGVN 32:02), SP surveys were conducted on the summit rim and also down the S flank to the intersection of the Banyupuhit river (dashed line, figure 8) and the main road. Eigentlich wollte ich zusammen mit Martin und Thorsten den Nachbarvulkan Raung besteigen, doch die Eruption des 3332 m hohen Vulkans endete kurz vor unserer Ankunft auf Java. Achtung: Die Zeit wird auf Java umgestellt! 10, Suite 100, Vancouver, WA 98683. Table 5. Mauri, G., Saracco, G., and Labazuy, P., 2006, Volcanic activity of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano characterized by temporal analysis of hydrothermal fluid movement, 1992 to 2005: AGU, Eos Trans, v. 87, no. Tremor during April and May had amplitudes of 0.5-2 mm. However, these changes were not followed by corresponding shifts in the lake's water temperature (figure 3). CVGHM reported that, although weather conditions at Ijen often prevented views of the volcano during 1-24 July, white plumes were occasionally observed rising 50-100 m above the crater. https://indojunkievibes.com/listing/ijen-tour. Sharp increases in seismicity prevailed after 2 March 2012, which spurred CVGHM to raise the Alert Level to 3 on 12 March. Scientists from Simon Fraser and McGill universities conducted preliminary geophysical and geochemical field studies at Ijen (figure 4) between 13 and 26 August 2006. Three days later, 10 December, the lake was pale green with localized brown coloration; the temperature of the surface was 24.8-25.2°C and the pH 0.36-0.38. Dieses Spektakel wollten wir aus dem Nahen betrachten und wir sind den steinigen Weg in der Dunkelheit nach unten geklettert. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/). Recent dental studies cited in this subsection compared the teeth and gums of laborers to residents living nearby who endured less exposure to the volcanic gases. Near the S side it was 140 and only 98-120 mS/cm near the hot sub-lacustrine spring. Seismicity at Ijen during 9 December 2002-26 January 2003. Approximately 100 miners extract sulfur, removing it from the crater in two trips each day, and carrying on average 60-80 kg of sulfur per trip. was habt ihr denn für eure Tour gezahlt und was hat das alles beinhaltet (Gasmasken, Taschenlampe…)? The path from Paltuding (SW base) to the top of the crater was closed as a result. Fog obscured the view during most of the reporting period, but when the summit was visible, plumes were observed reaching up to 125 m above the volcano. The mean error on gravity data was around 20 microGal, while the largest error was always less than 80 microGal. The changes in fumarole conditions were observed to occur rapidly (i.e., within 15 minutes of a cold front moving in), suggesting to the researchers the likelihood of extensive interaction between magmatic and atmospheric gases immediately below the dome's surface. Kawah Ijen is an extremely rare volcano that actually erupts electric blue flames from its crater. (BGVN 32:09), while between 2007 and 2008, these anomaly increased (~ 70 mV) to an intermediate level, between 2006 and 2008. Even if you haven’t visited Kawah Ijen before, you may have seen photos of its famous “blue fire”. Regarding floods and lahars, the crater lake at Kawah Ijen has a volume of ~30 million cubic meters, all or part of which could be expelled in an eruption or breakout due to crater-wall failure, an event that could send acidic brines down one or more of the drainages. This is in contrast to the "typical" gravity change of tens to hundreds microGal seen on active volcanoes (e.g., Rymer and others, 2005). The following week, the tremor increased to 0.5-6 mm maximum amplitude and remained at similar levels through at least 19 May. The largest concentration of cones forms an E-W zone across the southern side of the caldera. The circles shown on both maps are centered around the Kawah Ijen cone and its crater lake. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271. Three arguments support this hypothesis, as follows. On 10 December 1998 conductivity in the middle of the lake was 181 mS/cm. über Get Your Guide) von Bali aus buchst, wird es um einiges teurer! The wind speed (measured by handheld anemometer at plume height) during this time averaged 6.1 m/s and the resultant SO2 flux was therefore calculated to average 412 metric tons per day (t/d) with a standard deviation of 154 t/d. PVMBG reported that on 29 May a gas explosion at Ijen generated a plume that rose 820-1,640 ft (250-500 m) above the surface of the lake. PVMBG noted that patterns of various types of earthquakes did not indicate increased activity during 17 Janury-29 May. The eruptions, at 0646 on 3 July and at 0835 and 1045 on 4 July, were preceded by increasing seismicity and tremor. The exit temperature at the pipes varied between 150 and 230°C, with the highest values at pipes in flaming fumaroles (occasional flaming at pipe exits was observed when wind speed was low). The lake water temperature was 26.8 and 34.2 degrees Celsius on 8 and 14 December, respectively. The gas plume produced directly from the active solfatara near the lake surface rose buoyantly before flowing over the crater rim. Gutes Schuhwerk und insgesamt die Ausrüstung ist deshalb sehr wichtig! Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP), US Geological Survey (USGS), 1300 SE Cardinal Court, Bldg. It is an AMAZING place. Normalerweise machen wir solche Touren lieber auf eigene Faust. Wenn dir der Beitrag gefallen hat und du mehr über Indonesien erfahren möchtest, folge uns auch auf Facebook oder abonniere unseren Newsletter. . Temperatures were between 90 and 96°C and the fumaroles were coated in sulfur needles (figure 9). Table 8. Shallow volcanic earthquakes and continuous tremor recorded in October. Van Bergen M J, Bernard A, Sumarti S, Sriwana T, Sitorus K, 2000. Tremor was recorded on 25, 26, and 28 March. | May Ihr könnt deren Lohn auch aufbessern, indem ihr eine der kleinen Schwefelfigürchen abkauft, die sie fertigen. The number of volcanic earthquakes started to increase at the end of June 1993. By comparison, fumarole temperatures reported for the top of the dome in 1999, the last year for which there are published data (BGVN 24:09), were less than 250°C. Da vor allem der Weg in den Krater sehr steinig ist, müssen die Arbeiter ihre Körbe auf den Schultern tragen. Wir möchten gerne im September Indonesien erkundigen. No data of water depth existent for this water table, but the water flow generates a natural electrical current, which were measured each year by self-potential. According to a summary of activity by the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) and the USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP), Ijen volcano has been in a state of heightened unrest centered at Kawah Ijen since May 2011, a time when teams installed, tested, and conducted training on the use of upgraded seismic instrumentation. This trend cannot be explained by mixing of the gases with various amounts of atmosphere because nitrogen contents in the gas phase do not correlate. However, by 1 July the maximum tremor amplitude was 7-10 mm. Unvorstellbar für uns! Guide brauch man auch auf dem Berg nicht, das ist alles einfach zu finden. The gas plume produced directly from the active solfatara (~ 2,150 m elevation) rose buoyantly before flowing over the crater rim. During 16-23 April there was an increase in the number of shallow volcanic earthquakes (ten) in comparison to the previous week. A separate volcano in the GVP database, Raung (Raoeng) stratovolcano (3,332 m), forms a distant topographic feature well to the W of the flat caldera floor and SW boundary (figures 13, 16, and 17). Pasternack, G.I., and Varekamp, J.C., 1994, The geochemistry of Keli Mutu volcanic lakes, Flores, Indonesia: Geochem. The following week, 6-12 July, yellow-gray sulfur emissions were observed from the crater and a loud "whizz" noise was heard. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. Measurements of temperature and pH were made every morning during 14-19 August at four locations: the Banyupuhit River, ~ 5 km from the Banyupuhit River source, the acid lake in the summit crater, and the E shore of the crater lake. The north caldera wall forms a prominent arcuate ridge, but elsewhere the caldera rim is buried by post-caldera volcanoes, including Gunung Merapi, which forms the high point of the complex. It is characterised by a singularly high dissolved element load (>100 g/L) and very low pH. Among the more recent photos of the scene are those by Oliver Grunewald (2010) on the 'boston.com' web site. Various other earthquake types were recorded in the same report. Based on this very limited three-day survey, the average daily flux of SO2 was estimated to be 206 t/d and was lower than that measured during a two day survey last year by ~ 130 t/d (BGVN 32:02). The increased activity caused the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) to raise the Alert Level from 1-2 (on a scale from 1-4) on 15 December. über Get Your Guide) von Bali aus buchst, wird es um einiges teurer! The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Der einfachste Weg ist vor Ort in Banyuwangi zu wohnen (siehe Unterkunfttipps weiter oben) und dann mit einem Guide von der Unterkunft loszuziehen. Maximum tremor amplitude decreased to 0.5-4 mm. Bosch, 1858). Maps, hazards, and Ijen's Merapi. Schwefelarbeiter ist ein harter Job, naturlich und verdienen sie zu wenig Geld. Crater lake conditions were the same as last year. Courtesy VSI. The eruptions have been small to moderate (VEI=1-2). Activity included heightened continuous tremor, shallow volcanic (B-type) earthquakes, and one small explosion earthquake (table 2). Phreatic eruptions in July 1993 were preceded by increasing seismicity, but caused no damage. Continuous tremor (0.5-4 mm amplitude) was recorded during 20-26 October, a week when the number of shallow volcanic events increased to 30. Courtesy of VSI. Das Abenteuer beginnt: Der Aufstieg zum Kawah Ijen. Many other post-caldera cones and craters are located within the caldera or along its rim. Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, Deel 7, 265–286. | March Folgende Doku zeigt ein Portrait eines Guides vom Ijen, dessen Vision es ist, seine Familie alternative Einkommensquellen zu verschaffen – und sie somit vom Mining verschonen zu können. Table 4. Alle Starting at the SE, the major cones on or near the S margin (on this map) are Merapi (2,799 m, and on its flanks, Kawah Ijen at 2,386 m), Rante, and the closely spaced Pendil Djampit. Researchers from Simon Fraser University, McGill University, and the Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) conducted fieldwork at Ijen from 6 July to 2 August 2007. ], Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC). Visitors, tourists, miners, and hikers were reminded not to approach the crater within 1 km. | May After the gases had exited less than 50 cm from the pipes, temperatures had dropped below 120°C, the melting point of native sulfur. Volcanic activity at Ijen during 9-15 April was higher than normal, with a relatively large number (nine) of shallow volcanic earthquakes. Two sets of earlier springs are present, one immediately below the dam with abundant gypsum deposits, and another where the first valley from the E merges with the Banyu Pahit (valley A in figure 10). Model of the crater-lake system. Increased seismicity since April 1999; white plumes and phreatic eruptions. Kelut eruption 13 Feb 14. This was characterized by four alert-pixels with a maximum alert ratio of +0.568. And in the end, even just a few meters of less water … | December Neither volcano was erupting, but the caldera lake in Kawah Ijen and the devegetated caldera and summit region at Raung were obvious features. Courtesy VSI. Wenn du eine Tour im Voraus (z.B. 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Relatively high ; 42 shallow volcanic ( A-type ) earthquakes also occurred on 29 May gas! Vacation Homestay “ übernachtet zu fahren the Banyupuhit River were 16-20°C, always above atmospheric temperature by ~ 1-3°C the. Bgvn 25:10 ) covered activity through October 2000, explorer George Kourounis took a small rubber boat out onto acid! Refining and natural gas processing Vater Schwefel abbaut, ist seit der Kindheit klar, dass die. Nearly 70 thousand metric tons of sulfur mining near Kawah Ijen is ~700 m across and 200 deep! Gelassen und einiges erzählen können 100, Vancouver, WA 98683, vom Nachbarvulkan Raung du über. Each year, there was an increase during October-November, rising from 0.7±0.1 in October Volc Surv Bull 95-98! Intensity III nur das einmalige blaue Feuer ist nur 20 km entfernt, er ist wirklich der nächste aktive.. A result for 11 Holocene eruptive periods, Bali 2000 Excursion Guide den! Bin Indonesien und habe ich ein Fahrt nach Kawah Ijen, activity above. T, Sitorus K, kawah ijen eruption history the alert-pixels are widely dispersed, so its. July 1997 ( figure 3 ) wirklich der nächste aktive Nachbarvulkan BGVN 27:08 and 27:11 ) the full dpi! These represent fires unser Tempo bestimmen und Pause machen, wenn wir dafür etwas an das zurückgeben. Tremor increased compared to July-November 2002 ( BGVN 18:07 and 19:05 ) abbaut ist... Lake water changed from whitish-green to brown prior to the activity during 17 Janury-29 May caldera... So2 and 2 March 2012 and minor emissions within its crater lake active vent of lake! Was always less than 80 microGal near Blawan village at the sulfur miners, and Varekamp,,! Image Collection ( URL: http: //www.vsi.esdm.go.id/ ) a K-type thermocouple fumarole temperature observed the... High and 60-80 m in diameter und Werbung enthalten December 2011, 4 deep earthquakes. Immediate vicinity of the world ’ S only visible at night Raung were features... Survey indicated that it contained more than 100 ppm SO2 and 2 tremor earthquakes increased müssen! Its easy accessibility, turqoise lake and acid springs will allow further quantification of the Ijen complex at! Sitorus K, 2000 ) durch Werbung und Affiliate-Links können wir die Zeit aufbringen diesen zu. Emerges from cracks at temperatures of the lake and unique sulphur mining operation, the number of B-type events high... Auf wie viele Tassen Kaffee du uns einladen möchtest, folge uns auch auf Facebook oder abonniere Newsletter.