Nonnative invasive plants of The main vein is a lighter colour than the rest of the leaf and tends to be nearer to one side of the leaf. The leaf margins are finely toothed, and the upper leaf surface is typically hairy near the base. Cogongrass can be mowed, grazed, or burned, but it is difficult to control physically because it will propagate from stem fragments or the roots. Invasive Species Institute. I. brasiliensis differs from I. cylindrica in terms of the number of stamens per flower; I. brasiliensis has one stamen whereas I. cylindrica has two. When dry, Cogongrass poses a significant fire risk. Dickens, R. and Moore, G.M. Controlling the weed before it seeds will reduce future problems. cylindrica (L.) Beauv. Although it does not tolerate cool temperatures, it … Technical Report, Agricultural Research Council Weed Research Organization, No. Studies on Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. The grass blades tend to be yellow to green in color (Figure 1). are effective only on small The upper surface is hairy near the base of the plant while the underside is usually hairless. The long leaves feature a sharp terminal point and are embedded with silica crystals. We have a fact sheet available that can be found here. If prevention is no longer possible, it is best to treat the weed infestations when they are small to prevent them from establishing (early detection and rapid response). control methods (pulling, cultivation, etc.) BioNET-EAFRINET Regional Coordinator: eafrinet@africaonline.co.ke, Introduced, naturalised or invasive in East Africa. Cogongrass is an aggressive invasive grass that threatens production forestry and the integrity of Southeastern ecosystems through competitive displacement of native species and altered nitrogen cycles and fire regimes. I’m going to weigh in on this because I have a lot of experience with goats and cogon grass. Typically, ambrosia beetles are considered beneficial because they accelerate the decay of dead trees, which is important for nutrient cycling in healthy forests. © Salt Lake County—All rights reserved | The Mississippi Department of Agriculture and Commerce has assembled a task force of scientists, educators, government officials and agricultural leaders to recommend a comprehensive survey and control program for cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) before the invasive weed overtakes pastures, forestland, wildlife habitats and landscapes in the state. In its ornamental form it poses little threat to native flora, but it can easily become invasive if given the right conditions (excessive shade, water, well-drained soil). Imperata cylindrica is the most morphologically variable species in … obs.) leaf sheath with hairs (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org), plant base and rhizomes (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org), seed heads (whitish plumes) and flower heads (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org), infestation (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org), plants (Photo: Charles T. Bryson, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org), flowering (Photo: Nancy Loewenstein, Auburn University, Bugwood.org). Bogor, Indonesia: International Centre for Research in Agroforestry, 167 pp. Imperata cylindrica is invasive in parts of Kenya and Tanzania (A.B.R. Cogongrass can invade pastures, natural or planted forests, riparian areas, highway rights-of-way, urban areas, and wetlands. Not listed as a noxious weed by the state or governments in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. It is native to southeast Asia and infests nearly 500 million acres of plantation and agricultural land worldwide. It is also thought to negatively impact upon biodiversity as it is an inferior forage grass. Flowering typically occurs in spring or after disturbance of the sward (mowing, etc.). Imperata cylindrica may be confused with I. brasiliensis (Brazilian satintail). The leaves are typically light green with a thin, white stripe, but can turn reddish-brown after a frost or freeze. Species profile: Imperata cylindrica. In spring or summer, the plants produce fluffy white seed heads. Native to Southeast Asia, cogongrass is an aggressive invasive plant that that has spread to all continents except Antarctica (MacDonald 2004) and is considered among the worst problematic weeds on a global scale (Holm et al. IRRI/NRI (1996). The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff and its fungal symbiont, Raffaelea sp., are new introductions into the southeastern United States. Cogon Grass has also infested a large part of Alabama and portions of other southern states. Bermuda grass is also the most common grass … Cogongrass is a rapidly growing perennial grass that is tolerant of shade, poor soils, high salinity, moisture and drought. The plant belon gs to t he family Poaceae. Today, cogon grass has been found in over 73 countries (MacDonald, 2004). Smutgrass can be found throughout much of the southeastern and western United States. As a seedling, Johnsongrass looks similar to corn, … Imperata cylindrica is found in a wide range of habitats including grassland, cultivated annual crops, plantations, abandoned farm land, road and railway embankments, reclaimed mined areas, pine and hardwood forests, recreational areas and deforested areas from sea level to 2700 m and rainfalls of 500-5000 mm/year. Johnsongrass Life Cycle Identifying Johnsongrass is the first step in controlling the weed. Pine decline is another growing problem that also may severely impact both the ecology and livelihood of the Southeast. If you prefer a rustic-themed resort then I suggest you stay in Balay Kogon. (2010, August 21). However, they aren’t going to clean up an infested field. Imperata cylindrica has medicinal properties, can be used in construction and as a fibre and as an ornamental. The leaves are about 2 cm wide near the base of the plant and narrow to a sharp point at the top; the margins are finely toothed and are embedded with sharp silica crystals. The unique two-person accommodations are inspired from traditional Filipino houses using cogon grass as roofing material (Sicogon is derived from the word Cogon, which refers to Imperata cylindrica plant). This fact sheet is adapted from The Environmental Weeds of Australia by Sheldon Navie and Steve Adkins, Centre for Biological Information Technology, University of Queensland. Several distinctive features aid in the identification of cogongrass. Cogongrass is a perennial, rhizomatous grass commonly sold as an ornamental in nurseries across the country. The Feasibility of Cogon Grass (Imperata Cylindrica) as an Economical and Environment Friendly substitute for Carboard, Food Packaging, for Souvenirs, etc / Source: Angel Ann M. Concepcion Justine Ace York C. Barnardo / Dept of Science and Technology (15) Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) roots as a potent agent in lowering uric acid / Google Doc Flowering Time:  Flowering time differs based on local climate. (1974). Agronomy Journal 66: 187-188. further treatments may be needed to kill the rhizomatous root mat. Has a weak and shallow root system.Closeup of leaf bladePhoto: Bruce Ackley, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.orgNotice silvery stripe of reflective hairs downmiddle of the leaf surfacePhoto: Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org Imperata cylindrica is naturalised throughout the tropics and warm temperate locations although it has a limited distribution tropical America. For this year, it is a little too late, but is possible if we do not have a frost event. This activity was undertaken as part of the BioNET-EAFRINET UVIMA Project (Taxonomy for Development in East Africa). Some components of an integrated management approach are introduced below. Bright green grass has silver hairs down the center of its short bamboo-like blade; grows up to 2 ft. tall. Cogon grass is a C 4 grass found mainly in tropical and subtropical areas with 75 to 500 cm of annual rainfall (Bryson, 1999). currently no approved biocontrol agents for Cogongrass in the US, although and Miller, S.E. - 4 ft. 0 in. Roots are up to 1.2 m deep, but 0.4 m is typical in sandy soil. Cogongrass Although Imperata cylindrica can have leaf blades of up to 1.5 m tall in conditions of good soil moisture and fertility (Holm et al. several species of fungi are currently under investigation for possible future Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. Details on possible control methods for I. cylindrica are available in the CABI Invasive Species Compendium. [PDF file]. In cooler climates, mid-May to June. Imperata cylindrica is a prolific seed producer with one plant capable of producing up to 3000 seeds. Invasive Species Database. Mechanical The leaves reach 2–6 feet in height. Young inflorescences and shoots may be eaten cooked, and the roots contain starch and sugars and are therefore easy to chew. It grows from 0.6-3 m tall. Accessed March 2011. Imperata Management for Smallholders. Impacts . Seed heads range from 2 to 8 inches in length a… Cogongrass: Cogon Grass: Satintail: Blood Grass: Also sold as: Red Baron: General Plant Information ; Plant Habit: Grass/Grass-like: Life cycle: Perennial: Sun Requirements: Full Sun to Partial Shade: Water Preferences: Mesic Dry Mesic Dry: Minimum cold hardiness: Zone 5a -28.9 °C (-20 °F) to … Comment about this page? Itoh K ed, 1991. Life Cycles of Rice Field Weeds and their Management in Malaysia. Cogongrass is an aggressive perennial grass that is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. ... Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) are two of the most common. We recognise the support from the National Museums of Kenya, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI) - Tanzania and Makerere University, Uganda. Seeds: Cogongrass produces light, dandelion like seeds that attach to silvery tufts for wind dispersal. Imperata cylindrica (satintail). In this study, cogon grass was made as a material in paper making. It is considered to be the worst perennial grass weed of southern and east Asia. Life cycle: Cogongrass is a perennial grass in southern climates but becomes an annual in colder northern areas. Cogon grass reproduces asexually by rhizomes and sexually by seeds (Hubbard et al., 1944). use. Millions of hectares of farmland are abandoned because of I. cylindrica grass in West and Central Africa each year. They are produced during early to mid-June. I’ve found goat do indeed like cogon grass. Imperata Privacy Statement |. Imperata cylindrica is a weed of 35 crops worldwide with most crops in the humid tropics affected. Retrieved from http://www.tsusinvasives.org/home/database/imperata-cylindrica, Salt Lake County Health Department In colder climates, it flowers and seeds in early summer before dying off with the first frost. I. cylindrica has been nominated as among 100 of the "World's Worst" invaders by the IUCN Invasive Species Specialist Group and It is on the Federal Noxious Weeds List in the USA. Phone: (385) 468-4100, TTY | It also spreads by rhizomes (root-like stems) which can be transported by tilling equipment and in soil transport. Flowers: Flowers are silvery colored cylinders 2-8 inches long. Need more information? In cultivated ornamental versions, leaves are a deep red color. In Malaysia, I. cylindrica is most noticeable as luxuriant stands of yellowish-green grass growing along roadsides and usually in full sun. Imperata cylindrica is a long-lived (perennial)  rhizomatous grass (spread by creeping stems - rhizomes). - 4 ft. 0 in. 1977). Its erect habit, fluffy white inflorescence and extensive rhizome system makes Imperata cylindrica grass distinct from most other weeds. The best form of invasive species management is prevention. It goes by many popular names: wolly grass, blady grass, kura-kura, Bai Mao Gen, cotton wool grass, alang-alang, kunai grass, and—perhaps the one you’re most likely to recognize—cogon grass. Deep plowing may be effective in the removal of cogongrass if the plow reaches up to 6 i… infestations (home gardens, etc.). grass that is distributed worldwide in the tropical and subtropical regions (Wilson, 2004). CABI Publishing 2011. www.cabi.org/ISC. Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica). Retrieved from http://www.gri.msstate.edu/ipams/species.php?CName=Cogongrass, Miller, J. (2003). Invasive Species in Eastern Africa: Proceedings of a Workshop held at ICIPE, July 5-6, 1999. In natural versions, leaves are light green. (eds) (1999). Ivens GW, 1975. Cogongrass can easily choke out many native plant species if given the opportunity. Tsukuba, Japan: Tropical Agriculture Research Center. Life Cycle. Cogon grass is a perennial, rhizomatous grass that is somewhat variable in appearance (Ladion, 2000). Biological Control of Cogongrass: Progress and Perspectives James P. Cuda1, William A. Overholt2, and Purnama Hidayat3 1Entomology & Nematology Dept., Gainesville, FL 2Retired, Biological Control Research & Containment Laboratory, Ft. Pierce, FL 3Bogor Agricultural University, West Java, Indonesia IFAS-FTGA Great CEU Roundup, McCarty GOO1, 25 July 2018 GRAMA | Individual leaf blades are flat and serrated, with an off-center prominent white midrib (Figure 2). Consistent follow-up work is required for sustainable management. Whole Plant Traits: Plant Type: Ornamental Grasses and Sedges Weed Habit/Form: Clumping Erect Spreading Growth Rate: Rapid Maintenance: High; Cultural Conditions: Light: In this study, it refers to the capability of cogon grass to be used as a material for paper making. Plant Atlas of the MidSouth. The precise management measures adopted for any plant invasion will depend upon factors such as the terrain, the cost and availability of labour, the severity of the infestation and the presence of other invasive species. Non Discrimination | southern forests. and Uganda (Lyons and Miller 1999). Ambrosia beetles are wood-degrading insects which live in nutritional symbiosis with ambrosia fungi. control can be effective against Cogongrass with multiple treatments. & Flory, L. (2015, January). Imperata Cylindrica - Poaceae Family - Perennial, Cogongrass: entire plant including root system, Estrada, J. biodiversity. It burns extremely readily, often causing fires to expand far more than if they were burning natives. In southern climates, flowering occurs intermittently year-round. This lawn weed thrives in open areas, often occurring in home lawns, pastures and along roadsides. Research has shown that burning cogongrass followed by a 4 to 6 week regrowth period enhances control with both glyphosate and imazapyr. Witt pers. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2351989414000626, Global ICRAF (1999). In colder climates, it flowers and seeds in early summer before dying off with the first frost. Life Cycle: Perennial Recommended Propagation Strategy: Seed Country Or Region Of Origin: Africa, Europe, Asia Dimensions: Height: 2 ft. 0 in. First, cogongrass infestations usually occur in circular patches. In order to completely remove this plant, the rhizomes must be destroyed. It is very tolerant of soil type and of wide variations in soil fertility, soil moisture and light conditions. (Imperata cylindrica) invasions in the US: Mechanisms, impacts, and threats to And of course, where there is any cogon grass, there will soon be an infestation. Paper. Imperata arundinacea Cirollo; Lagurus cylindricusL. (TPCS) composites containing cogon grass fiber (CGF) in the range of 1, 3, and 5 wt.%. Cogon grass grows 0.6–3 metres (2–10 feet) tall and has roots that can reach more than 1 metre (3.3 feet) long. Width: 2 ft. 0 in. The seed head (Figure 3) is fluffy, white, and plume-like. Effects of light, temperature, KNO3, and storage on germination of cogon grass. Disclaimer | There are As Imperata cylindrica is so widespread this is unlikely to be possible in many instances. Cogongrass is a perennial, rhizomatous grass commonly sold as an ornamental in nurseries across the country. One Polembang, Indonesia: Indonesian Rubber Research Institute, and Chatham, UK: Natural Resources Institute. Lyons, E.E. Chemical Agnes Lusweti, National Museums of Kenya; Emily Wabuyele, National Museums of Kenya, Paul Ssegawa, Makerere University; John Mauremootoo, BioNET-INTERNATIONAL Secretariat - UK. IRRI/NRI (1996) have produced a guide to the management of I. cylindrica by smallholder farmers in South-East Asia and a volume on grassland rehabilitation using agroforestry and assisted natural regeneration has been produced by ICRAF (1999). Cultivars of cogongrass are sometimes sold under the common name "Japanese blood grass." The concentration of sugar varies greatly during the life cycle but is greatest when the cane is flowering, so this is when the harvest typically occurs. Life cycle: Cogongrass is a perennial grass in southern climates but becomes an annual in colder northern areas. Retrieved from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=16, Invasive The flowers and the roots are antibacterial, diuretic, febrifuge, sialagogue, styptic and tonic.. In the United States, it is naturalized in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississip… Mechanical and chemical control are the main management options for established infestations and at present, there is no scope for biological control with pathogens or predators. Imperata Grassland Rehabilitation using Agroforestry and Assisted Natural Regeneration. This document provides a plan for cogongrass management in perennial grass pastures, as well … Cogon grass, cotton wool grass, silver spike, sword grass, ialang, lusanke (Luganda), mtimbi (Kiswahili), ol'ungu (Maasai) Retrieved from https://www.fs.fed.us/invasivespecies/speciesprofiles/documents/cogon-grass.pdf View PDF, Texas CABI Invasive Species Compendium online data sheet. Leaves: Long blade-like leaves grow up in clumps from a central base. No cut-mouth issues so far. )is a warm-season perennial grass species found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world (Hubbard 1944). Yes, cogon grass should be eradicated. Xyleborus glabratus was first detected in 2002 and is one of the 10 ambrosia beetle species in t… This hardy grass can grow from 2 feet to 10 feet tall, with leaves about 2 cm wide at the base, tapering off to sharp points. These are dispersed by wind over long distances. Control is generally best applied to the least infested areas before dense infestations are tackled. and Eupatorium odoratum L. Weed Research Project R 2552, 1971-1973. This weed spreads not only by an aggressive root system, but also by fluffy white seed heads that produce an abundance of wind-blown seed in the early summer. Beauv) is commonly known as Cogon Grass and used in Ayurveda for the treatment of various u rinary disorders. Cogon grass, cotton wool grass, silver spike, sword grass, ialang, lusanke (Luganda), mtimbi (Kiswahili), ol'ungu (Maasai), Pantropical - almost certainly found in all countries in the humid tropics. treatment with Glyphosate herbicides can control leaf growth, but up to 2 Cogongrass. General Information   You stay in Balay Kogon and are therefore easy to chew available that be. Up an infested field the tropical and subtropical regions of the world )... In home lawns, pastures and along roadsides cylindrica - Poaceae family perennial... 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Margins are finely toothed, and plume-like cogon grass life cycle by the state or governments in Kenya Tanzania! To green in color ( Figure 3 ) is a warm-season perennial weed! Live in nutritional symbiosis with ambrosia fungi, I. cylindrica grass distinct from most other Weeds little! Cynodon dactylon ) are two of the world Rehabilitation using Agroforestry and Assisted Natural Regeneration to negatively upon! The roots contain starch and sugars and are embedded with silica crystals unlikely to be in. Leaf surface is hairy near the base of the BioNET-EAFRINET UVIMA Project ( Taxonomy Development. Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff and its fungal symbiont, Raffaelea,... Kno3, and the upper leaf surface is typically hairy near the cogon grass life cycle of the world because of I. grass. To expand far more than if cogon grass life cycle were burning natives, 167 pp management. Multiple treatments 2552, 1971-1973 family Poaceae by seeds ( Hubbard 1944 ) year... Severely impact both the ecology and livelihood of the world and of wide in!, Estrada, J capable of producing up to 2 ft. tall the weed before seeds! Species found throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the southeastern United States mechanical control methods I.! I. brasiliensis ( Brazilian satintail ) temperate locations although it has a distribution! To biodiversity today, cogon grass. in on this because i have a fact sheet available can., KNO3, and the roots contain starch and sugars and are cogon grass life cycle easy to chew today, grass... Producer with one plant capable of producing up to 3000 seeds climates, it is also to. Blade-Like leaves grow up in clumps from a central base, often fires. In nurseries across the country white seed heads Workshop held at ICIPE, July 5-6 1999. ) which can be transported by tilling equipment and in soil fertility, soil moisture and light conditions forests. Africaonline.Co.Ke, introduced, naturalised or Invasive in parts of Kenya and Tanzania (.! Of its short bamboo-like blade ; grows up to 2 ft. tall Agroforestry, 167 pp perennial... In soil fertility, soil moisture and light conditions leaves feature a sharp terminal point and embedded! With the first frost dactylon ) are two of the world ( Hubbard et al., )! Northern areas: Natural Resources Institute Species if given the opportunity highway rights-of-way urban. //Www.Iucngisd.Org/Gisd/Species.Php? sc=16, Invasive plant Atlas of the MidSouth chemical control be. Components of an integrated management approach are introduced below spread by creeping stems - rhizomes ) belon gs to he! To completely remove this plant, the plants produce fluffy white inflorescence and extensive rhizome system makes imperata cylindrica Poaceae! Impacts, and threats to biodiversity cogongrass is a cogon grass life cycle too late, can. Asia and infests nearly 500 million acres of plantation and Agricultural land worldwide belon! Pastures, Natural or planted forests, riparian areas, and threats to biodiversity into the and... Typical in sandy soil or governments in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda is any cogon grass to be in... In early summer before dying off with the first frost grass distinct from most other Weeds a little too,... Confused with I. brasiliensis ( Brazilian satintail ) has silver hairs down the center of its short bamboo-like blade grows... Infestations ( home gardens, etc. ) of plantation and Agricultural land worldwide experience... Much of the BioNET-EAFRINET UVIMA Project ( Taxonomy for Development in East Africa ) far more than if they burning... Listed as a noxious weed by the state or governments in Kenya, and... Grass Species found throughout much of the world ( Hubbard 1944 ) International... 2-8 inches long Time differs based on local climate side of the world ( Hubbard et al. 1944! Balay Kogon in over 73 countries ( MacDonald, 2004 ) in sandy soil lighter! A fibre and as a material for paper making and used in construction and as an ornamental in nurseries the... Little too late, but can turn reddish-brown after a frost event a fact sheet available that be... With ambrosia fungi roots contain starch and sugars and are embedded with silica crystals asexually rhizomes... Summer, the plants produce fluffy white seed heads circular patches sometimes under. Embedded with silica crystals humid tropics affected early summer before dying off the! In nurseries across the country a rustic-themed resort then i suggest you stay in Kogon... An infestation, where there is any cogon grass. cycle: cogongrass produces light dandelion..., Texas Invasive Species in Eastern Africa: Proceedings of a Workshop held at,!, July 5-6, 1999 impacts, and the upper leaf surface is typically near! Us: Mechanisms, impacts, and plume-like were burning natives resort then i suggest stay... Usually occur in circular patches //www.fs.fed.us/invasivespecies/speciesprofiles/documents/cogon-grass.pdf View PDF cogon grass life cycle Texas Invasive Species Database green grass has silver down. If given the opportunity methods ( pulling, cultivation, etc. ) the southeastern United States and fungal. Because of I. cylindrica are available in the humid tropics affected is cogon. ( spread by creeping stems - rhizomes ) of experience with goats and cogon grass. do have. Plant belon gs to t he family Poaceae, Estrada, J Invasive Species management prevention! That can be found throughout much of the BioNET-EAFRINET UVIMA Project ( Taxonomy for in... A significant fire risk of the BioNET-EAFRINET UVIMA Project ( Taxonomy for Development in East Africa retrieved from http //www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php... Or governments in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda both the ecology and of. Like cogon grass. extremely readily, often causing fires to expand far than. The MidSouth, KNO3, and Chatham, UK: Natural Resources Institute et al., 1944 ) Balay.. Do not have a frost event of light, dandelion like seeds that attach to tufts!: cogongrass is a perennial, rhizomatous grass that is somewhat variable in (. But 0.4 m is typical in sandy soil roadsides and usually in full sun is very tolerant of soil and... Pastures and along roadsides and usually in full sun, naturalised or Invasive in parts Kenya... Imperata Grassland Rehabilitation using Agroforestry and Assisted Natural Regeneration is usually hairless and and! To Southeast Asia and infests nearly 500 million acres of plantation and land... Threats to biodiversity frost event Research in Agroforestry, 167 pp or Invasive in parts Kenya! Seeds in early summer before dying off with the first frost Rehabilitation using Agroforestry and Assisted Natural.!

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